An autonomous special statute region of insular Italy, formed of an island bearing the same name and of numerous minor isles forming a crown among which are Asinara, La Maddalena, Caprera, San Pietro and Sant'Antioco; it is washed by the Tyrrhenian Sea to the East, the Sardinian Sea to the West and the Mediterranean Sea to the South, being separated from Corsica to the North by the Strait of Bonifacio. The region covers a surface of 24,090 sq.Km., numbers a population of approximately 1,600,000 inhabitants; its capital is Cagliari and it is divided for administration purposes into the four provinces of Cagliari, Nuoro, Oristano and Sassari.

Rectangular in shape, extended, in the direction of the meridians, the island is formed in prevalance of granitic and sedimentary rocks. The very irregular rilief is formed by a series of mountainous groups (Limbara, Gennargentu, Sarrabus) culminating at 1834 mt. in the Punta La Marmora of the Gennargentu massif. In the south-westerly sector, between the Gennargentu and the riliefs of the Iglesiente, stretches the Campidano alluvial plain.

The very indented coast, rich in coves, soft sandy shores and caves are faced by numerous island. Of particular interest are the inland areas which show an unpolluted nature. The water courses (Flumendosa, Coghinas, Tirso, Flumini Mannu, Cedrino, Cixerri) are of a torrent-like character and are almost all dammed forming artificial basins used for the production of electric power and for the irrigation of vast areas.

The economy of the island is traditionally based on breeding and on the extractive industry and tourism is in expansion. Well-known and highly-valued are the Sardinian wines.

Handicrafts have an antique tradition on the island and are still today widely practised. Within the vast range of its products the rugs, tapestries, blankets, embroidery, baskets, carved wood and pieces of pottery are particularly esteemed.

The nature, the position of the island, the small number of coastal resorts in comparison to the towns inland, the historic events have for long periods favoured the isolation of the Sardinian populations permitting the autonomous development of their lives and reducing to a minimum the external influences. An historic continuity exists in the landscape, in the uses and customs of the people. It is a continuity which goes back in time to the Nuraghi millenaries, to the "domus de janas" to the Punic and Roman archeological remains and to the precious medioeval churches.